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Medicinal Plants Historical

Medicinal Plants Historical


Primitive humans experimentally sampled many kinds of plants in their search for nourishment. Medicinal plants that were palatable were used for food; those with toxic or unpleasant effects were avoided or used against enemies; others that produced physiological effects such as perspiration, defecation, healing, or hallucination were saved for medicinal purposes and divination. Over a period of thousands of years, people learned to use a variety of plants as medicines for different ailments and become medicinal plants.




Use in History
Over 4,000 years ago, according to tradition, the Chinese emperor Chi'en Nung put together a book (herbal) of medicinal plants called Pen Tsao. It contained descriptions of more than 300 plants, several of which are still used in medicine. During the same era and later, the Sumerians recorded prescription on clay tablets, while the Egyptians recorded exotic plants ingredients in Ebers Papyrus. The Greeks and the Romans derived some of their contributions are recorded in De Materia Medica by Dioscorides and the 37-volume natural history written by Pliny the Elder. Some of these earlier works are known to us through translations into Arabic by Rhazes and Avicenna. The knowledge of medicinal plants was further nurtured by monks in Europe who studied and grew medicinal plants and translated the Arabic works.
The first "licensed" apothecary shops opened in Baghdad in the 9th century. by the 13th century, London became a major trading center in herbs and spices. Much adulteration occurred in this trade , because proper standards and quality control of medicinal plants had not been established. Poorly identified plants and substitutes for true medical herbs were sold everywhere. In 1753, Carolus Linnaeus introduced the binomial system of plant nomenclature, which helped in the identification of plants. With the subsequent publication of pharmacopoeias, the method of identification and the standard of quality for each drug was clearly defined.
The present trend to replace crude plant drugs with their pure active principles started with the pioneering work in the 18th century of Karl Scheele, who isolated organic acids from medicinal plants. This achievement was followed by the isolation of morphine from opium by friedrich Serturner and quinine from cinchona bark by Pierre Pelletier and Josep Caventou. These and similar discoveries opened the door to the field of phytochemistry. Today a vast number of modern drugs are still derived from natural sources; approximately 25% of all prescription contain one or more active ingredients from medicinal plants.
Modern medicine also requires ongoing research in various fields of science as well as the development of clinical procedures and technologies. 

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Traditional Conservation of The Yawa Tribe





Traditional Conservation of The Yawa Tribe 
Yapen Tengah Nature Reserve Irian Jaya


In Irian Jaya, almost every tribe has its own traditional laws and customs which help it protect the use of natural resources. Some of these tribal laws or custom regulate access and use of common land, water, the forest and holy places. Sanctions for violation of tribal law are usually also part of these tribal customs.
One of the tribes in Irian Jaya which has such customs and laws in place is Yawa Tribe. The Yawa tribe mainly consists of people living in the two villages of Ambidiru and Mambo within the Yapen Tengah Nature Reserve on Yapen Island off the north coast of Irian Jaya. This tribe is considered to be one of the first group to inhabit the island.
The Yawa Tribe has known about the need to protect nature and manage the use of natural resources for generations. They still abide by these precepts today and put them into practice in their daily life. Their traditional law and customs are primarily connected with the use and protection of natural resources, such as water sources, birds, sacred forest, certain plants (including medicinal plants) and land.
Traditional Medicine
The Yawa Tribe uses certain leaves and tree as one of their traditional medicine to cure headaches, to stop bleeding from wounds and to regulate female fertility. The taput leaf is used to stop light bleeding. If the patient is severely injured, the wound will be covered with special leaves. The rokdop leaf and koi leaf are blended with water and drunk as cure for malaria, that become secret leaf for the Yawa Tribe's traditional medicine.
The Yawa Tribe also uses bark to prevent or promote conception. If a husband and wife want to prevent conception, the wife has to drink a preparation made from a certain tree bark. Ont the other hand, if the husband and wife are trying to have a child, the wife will drink a different preparation, 
Protecting The Water Supply
People of the Yawa tribe place a wooden cross near a water source as a sign indicating that the trees nearby should not be cut down. They are aware of the fact that any disturbance to the forest area surrounding a water source can also disturb the water source itself, another way protecting the water supply with unique concept. This wooden sign is also used by farm owners and mark off fruit trees.
Protecting The Bird of Paradise
The Yawa Tribe's system for organizing hunting of the Bird of Paradise is based on clans, or karet. The Rawai clan, for example, may not hunt the Bird of Paradise within the territory of the Krubaba clan. If a member of one clan transgresses another clan's territory, he must replace the Bird of Paradise he caught with one of equally large and equally beautiful.
Protecting Other Birds
The Yawa tribal custom also protects the wattled brush turkey and the brown-collared brush turkey. These two birds are called Ajinda int the local language. Every clan may collect the eggs of these birds only within its own territory. In Addition, if someone from the Rawai or Pai clan finds Ajinda eggs near where he lives, he will share the eggs with other members of the clan.
Protecting sacred places
A mountain, known in the local language as Gunung Rawai, located to the east of Ambidiru village is considered to be holy to the Rawai clan as it is the place where their ancestors lived. For these reason, there is a prohibition against cutting down trees in this area. There are some other special places as well, such as Paputum, Geyen and Marandoa, where tree feeling is not allowed and which cannot be used for farming because they are considered to be holy places. People in the Yawa Tribe believe that sickness or misfortune will be fall them it they use these places for farming or cut down the trees.
Protecting The Clan Forest
People in the Yawa Tribe, may not cut down trees indiscriminately and the forest is divided up between clan based on the traditional law. If  somebody wants to cut down trees in the area belonging to his clan to build house. For example, he must ask permission from the clan leader first and the issue must then also be discussed among the clan. If a member of one clan wishes to cut down trees in an are of the forests "owned" by another clan, he must get permission from that clan.
Protecting trees
The people know that certain protecting trees help fertilized the soil. Leaves of the salawaku and banyan are used as fertilizer. Leaves from the salawaku free are also used to protect coffee plants. A type of wild grass, known locally as insyumai, is also used to fertilizer crops. The flowering part of this grass is yellow and its leaves form a small circle.
What we can learn
If we look at the traditional laws and customs of the Yawa Tribe, and at their prudent and effective protection. and used of natural resources, we should recognize that more research about local people, and their concepts of conservation, is needed in order to help with the management of protected areas. 
Local customs and tradition, such as those of the Yawa Tribe, should be adapted and used for managing conservation areas. If the customs and laws of the people living near and within protected areas are integrated into a conversion area's management plan, it shows an understanding and a respect for their traditions and their culture and relates to our hope that a conservation are really can be supported and respected by the local people. Without the support of local people, any system of management for a conservation are will make very slow progress and will not have much success. (John A. Maturbongs)
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Traditional Medicine and Medical Plants

Knowledge about traditional medicines in Indonesia is quite extensive because of the great diversity in local cultures. Unlike Chinese traditional medicine which relies mostly on the use of animal parts, Indonesia traditional medicine makes use of plants, particularly those growing in the forest.
From the beginning, the forest and traditional peoples have formed a unit leading to a way of life which is interactive and mutually beneficial. Nowadays, many traditional peoples can be found living in or around conservation areas. It is here that knowledge about the use of traditional medicines and healing practise in daily life can be found.
One example of a traditional people still following this way of life, and who know about medical plants, are the Dayak who live in the area of the Kayang Mentarang Naturese Reserve in East Kalimantan. The umak Tukung Kenyah Dayak from Long Sungai Barang, Apo Kayan, in the southern part of this reserve, for example, recognize 213 types of medical plants. They use medicinal plants to treat over seventeen major kinds of health problems, including skin disease, stomach ailments, nerve disorders, poisoning, child birth, bone and joint problems, eye problems, blood circulation, and high blood pressure.
Plant species from the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) are the most commonly found ingredients in traditional medicine with nineteen species used. The next most commonly found medicinal plant ingredients are from the coffee family (Rubiaceae) with eleven plant species used.
The variety in the types of plants used is also reflected in the variety of their habitats. Medicinal plants grow in the local gardens, cultivated fields, at the side of footpaths, along riverbanks, in young secondary forest (bekan), in mature secondary forest (jekau) and in primary forest (empak). About 70 percent of the medicinal plants and poisons grow wild.
The parts of the plants that are used also vary. However, the parts most commonly used are the leaves, the stem, the roots, and rhizome. The method for making and applying the medicines and poisons is still quite simple. The preparation of traditional medicine usually only involves pressing, pounding and boiling or burning the ingredients.
Many different peoples in Indonesia still have knowledge of traditional medicine. However, very few people have shown an interest in carrying out research on these medicines. The total number of medicinal plants species to be found in Indonesia is not yet even known. A rough estimate by Alrasyid (1991) maintains that Indonesia's forests may have as many as 9,606 such species while PT. Eisai Indonesia (1986) lists, 3,689 species of pharmaceutical plants. Zuhud, Ekarelawan and Riswan (1994) believe that there are 1,260 species of medicinal plants in Indonesia's forests whose uses are known by local and traditional peoples.
There are also not many people who know that a significant amount of export revenue is obtained from the sale of Indonesia's medicinal plants abroad. The export receipts from this type of commodity continue to rise every year, and in 1990, for example, already reached US$11.16 million. The potential of this market could be developed further.
The inventory and investigation of traditional medicine use by Indonesia people should not be postponed any longer. This is not only because the forest habitat where these plants primarily grow is becoming smaller and smaller but also because the people who know about these medicines are aging, with many already having passed away. This situation is like a library on fire - when knowledge of traditional ways vanishes forever. (by Herwarsono and Kim Worm Sorensen)

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Protective Measures

Many endangered species received a measure of relief in 1973 (first of protective measures has been arrange), when the 80 nations that originally participated in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna in Washington D.C., agreed to halt imports of endangered species. In the same year, the United States Congress enacted the Endangered Species Act, ensuring the protection of the vital habitat of any endangered species. The act has been extended repeatedly since then. In 1972 the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, Sweden, called for a 10-years moratorium on whaling. The following year the 14 nations in the International Whaling Commission, which meets annually to set quotas, rejected the recommendation but did reduce quotas, introduce area quotas for sperm whales, and continue to forbid the hunting of blue, bowhead, humpback, gray, and right whales. Various quotas have since been established. As a result of another conference held in 1972, an agreement to prohibit dumping of toxic materials in open seas was signed by 91 nations.
National parks throughout the world are often havens for threatened organism according to the protective measures. Research stations have been set up to replenish breeding stock and discover more about the environment and its interrelationships. The protective measures of endangered species are : 
Pesticide pollution endangers the bald eagle (4), peregrine falcon (6) and Japanese white stork (8)
Oil spills threaten the puffin (3)
Water pollution has also led to the decline of the North Atlantic salmon salar (1), Atlantic sturgeon (2), manatee (5) and black footed penguin (7)
Animal threatened by introduced predators include the Galapagos giant tortoise (9), kakapo (10),
a New Zealand ground parrot (11), kagu (12), Indian wild ass (13)
Cattle plague affects the western giant eland (14)


Superstitions endanger such animals as the aye-aye (15), which some Madagascans regard as an evil spirit.
Horns of the black rhinoceros (16), and sika deer (19), are thought to have aphrodisiac properties.
The Japanese giant salamander (17), and formosan serow (18) are used for healing.
The Capture and collection of animals for zoos, pets, or research threatens populations of the Philippine monkey-eating eagle (20), orang utan (21) of Borneo and Sumatera, golden marmoset (22), giant anteater (23),
Texas blind salamander (24), Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise (25) and golden frog (26) of Panama.
Hunting and over exploitation include the dugong (27), bengal and siberian tiger (28), L. tigris altaica (29), several subspecies of leopard (30), the arrau (31), Atlantic Walrus (32), blue whale (33), European beaver (34),
Nile crocodile (35), green turtle (36), American alligator (37), wild yak (38), chincilla (39), snow leopard (40).
Shooting for "sport" has endangered many species. The giant sable antelope (41),
The Arabian ostrich (45), the Arabian oryx (43), Grus Americana (42), the trumpeter swan (44), Canada goose (46), California condor (47), and polar bear (48)
Many native species are considered pests or predators of introduced species in the new habitats created by human settlement. Animals persecuted for this reason include the Tasmanian wolf (49), wolf (50), black-footed ferret (51), Spanish imperial eagle (52), Mexican grizzly bear (53), Hawaiian hawk (54), Spanish lynx (55), sea otter (56), northern kit fox (57), Florida cougar (58), and Asiatic lion (59).
Deforestation, wetland drainage and other forms of habitat destruction have to the decline of white -throated wallaby. Macropus parma (60), mountain gorilla (61), indri indri (62), Salmo clarki (63), Komodo dragon (64), chimpanzee (65), Everglade kite (66), Hawaiian gallinule (67), Indian elephant (68), spider monkey (69), Comanche Springs pupfish (70), and British swallowtail butterfly (71).
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Several Kinds of Useful Plants in Wetlands





Useful Plants in Wetlands

Wetlands plants are plants that live in the land that is flooded.
- Wetlands plants, source of food and medicine, and protect the environment    
  from dangers of flooding, water pollution, erosion, etc.
Wetland is a place where aquatic plants live and reproduce.


Several Kinds of Useful Plants in Wetlands


Jeruju (Holly / Acanthus illicifolius)
This plant usually grows in mangrove forest area. It spread from India to Australia and the Pacific Islands. Jeruju roots used as medicine and wound healing abdominal pain. Jeruju seeds used as a blood cleanser that broke out in boils and as de-worming for children.






Purun (Lepironia articulata)
Except in Indonesia, this plant is also found in Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Purun can be woven for hats, mats and wrapper tobacco and other goods.










Sambang (Lasia spinosa)
Sambang is a wild plant that grows in swamps, rivers, ponds, ditches and rice fields are no longer cultivated. Spread over Kalimantan, Sumatra and Java. Boiled roots are used as medicine for postpartum women and treatment for heartburn. Sambang leaves are rolled, it is used as external medicine for stomach pains, joints and bones. Boiled leaves can be eaten with rice with spicy taste.




Rumput Payung (Cyperus papyrus)
These plants usually found in swampy marsh African continent. Stems can be woven into mats, rope, and hats. Due to the unique shape, often planted in a pond in front of  House as an ornamental plant. Rumput Payung is basic material for manufacture of the first paper in Egypt.










Bogem (Sonneratia caseolaris)
Bogem is one of 40 tree species in Indonesia that are resistant to sea water. Bogem found in mangroves and tidal rivers. Spreads in Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Polynesia. Roots are often used as a substitute soft cork, leaves and fruit can be eaten or cooked with fish,seeds are used as fish poison, juice from the seeds can be used to protect the luck of rainwater on paper umbrella, In Ternate, sap is used on the skin to kill parasites that cause disease, ash of the seed with other herbs used to cure heartburn.


Genjer (Limnocharis flava)
Genjer is found in convulsions, small rivers, ditches and sewers, is a native plant from Tropical America. Spread to Southeast Asia via the Bogor Botanical Gardens.In West Java, young leaves and flowers is often sold in the market.








Tunjung (Nymphaea lotus)
Plant life in ponds, small rivers, and flower sacred for Hindus. These plants originated from Egypt, but for other types found in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Beautiful water plants are usually grown for decorative pond, can be used for stomach medicine for animals, it's seed wheat flour substitute for bread, eaten as a vegetable.






Padi-padian (Oryza barthii)
Is one of the wild rice species that live in wetlands. For example rice resistant to pests and diseases and can live in brackish water areas. Rice is the staple food while most of the world's population, are the result of crossing various species of wild rice.
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Endangered Species

Image Source : Well Rounded Kids Bookstore
Endangered species are those whose populations have been so reduced that they are threatened with extinction. Thousand of species are included in this category. The international Union for the Conservation Of Nature Resources (headquartered in Morges, Switzerland) publishes a list of threatened mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. This list is growing at an alarming rate, as is the number of endangered species of fish, invertebrates, and plants.
During the millions of years that preceded the appearance of human life, extinction of organisms was linked to large scale geologic and climatic changes, the effects of which were translated into major alteration of the environment. Environment change is still the primary cause of the extinction of animals, but now the changes are greatly accelerated by human activity. Clearing land for farms and towns, lumbering, mining, building dams, and draining wetlands all alter the environment so extensively that ecosystems may be completely destroyed. With a burgeoning human population requiring food, shelter, and clothing and constantly demanding more energy using devices, the temptation to exploit land for human use without regard for consequences is great.
Frequently, several forms of environmental change are responsible for the disappearance of species. For example, as tropical forests are cut down, primates have progressively smaller feeding and living spaces. They also become more accessible to hunters, who kill monkeys for food and trap many primates for sale as pets, research animals, and zoo specimens. Some animal species may move into human communities when their own are destroyed. Extermination of marauding monkeys, roaming tigers, or foraging deer is easy to justify by people whose livelihood is threatened.
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Ecology

Ecology is the scientific study of the interrelationships of plants, animals, and the environment. In recent years, the word has sometimes been misused as a synonym for environment. The principles of ecology are useful in many aspect of the related fields of conservation, wildlife management, forestry, agriculture, and pollution control.
The world ecology (Greek, oikos, "house," and logos, "study of") is generally believed to have been coined by Ernst Haeckel, who used and defined it in 1869. The historical roots of ecology lie not only in natural history, but in physiology, oceanography, and evolution as well. It has occasionally been called scientific natural history (a phrase originated by Charles Elton) because of its origin and its heavy reliance on measurement and mathematics. Ecology is variously divided into terrestrial ecology, fresh-water ecology (limnology), and marine ecology, or into population ecology, community ecology, and ecosystem ecology.


Ecological Classification of Organism
Ecologists commonly classify organisms according to their fucntion in the environment. Autotrophs ("self-nourishers," also called producers), which are mainly green plants, manufacture their own food from carbon dioxide, water, minerals, and sunlight, whereas heterotrophs - a wide assortment of organisms - lack the metabolic machinery to synthesize their own food and must obtain it from other sources.
Some heterotrophs - the herbivores - eat plants, and some - the carnivores, or predators - eat animals. Some, called omnivores, eat both plants and animals; others eat only dead plants and animals. Some, called scavengers, eat large dead organisms. Some smaller heterotrophs, such as bacteria and fungi, feed on dead organisms; they are called decomposers. Parasites eat living organisms, but, unlike predators, do not devour them at one time. Parasite include forms such as ticks and fleas, which live on their hosts, and others, such as tapeworms, roundworms, and bacteria, which live within their hosts.

Related Topic :
Communities
Endangered Species

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National Park Classic Photo's

One of the three major geographical areas of Nepal
is the northern region located in Himalayas, which
include Mount Everest, the world's highest park.
Because the rugged terrain is too difficult for pack
animals, porters are employed to transport goods. 

Forested mountains of the Adirondack range appear in this
view from Ampersand Mountain, near Saranac Lake in -
Northeastern New York. The Adirondacks, which contain
New York's highest peak - Mount Marcy (1,629 m/5,344 ft) -
extend from central New York into  southern Canada.

The placid beauty of glacial mountains, lakes, and
inlets is characteristic of New Zealand's Fiordland
National Park. Located on the west coast of the South
Island, the park preserves the rugged lands south of the
island's extensive mountain chain, the Southern Alps.

The Canadian Rockies rise above Honeymoon Lake in
Jasper National Park. This park covers approximately 10,878 km2
(4,200 mi2) and includes portions of the Columbia ice field,
the largest North American glacial ice field south of the Artic Circle.

The Cabot Trail, named for John Cabot, who explored the coast
of Nova Scotia in 1497, winds along the northwest coast of Cape
Breton island.This area covering 951 km2 (367 mi2), was designated
as Cape Breton Highland National Parks in 1936
The eastern face of the Teton Mountains provides
a majestic background to a field of wild flowers in
the Grand Teton National Park. This park, established
in 1929, has been gradually expanded to cover 125,590 ha
(310,359 acres) in northwestern Wyoming.

The Grand Canyon, an immense gorge carved by the
Colorado River in northern Arizona, plunges to a depth of
1,700 m (5,577 ft).

(Left) Frozen lake, one of 62 lakes in Washington's Mount Rainier National Park,
lies in a valley bordered by the Cascade Mountains
(Right) The lower Falls, plunging 94 m (308 ft), is a major scenic attraction of Yellowstone
National Park.

Egrets search for food in Everglades National Park,
which constitutes the southernmost portion of the Florida Mainland.
The park, occupying 5,661 km2 (2,186 mi2) of wilderness, was authorized
in 1934. Many rare species of wildlife, including the manatee and -
the saltwater crocodile, thrive within the park's subtropical environment.

A backpacker fords a small stream in the Great Smoky Mountains
National Park, a recreational are situated on the North Carolina
Tennessee border.

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Palm Tree

Palm tree is a type of plants preserved in some national park around the world. Palms are perhaps the most striking plants in tropical floras. Their often tall, usually straight, unbrached, woody stems topped by a spreading crown of long-stalked, sometimes huge, fanlike or featherlike, pleated leaves distinguish them from nearly all other forms of vegetation. The palm family is the only family in the order Arecales and is one of the oldest of flowering plants. The palms fossil record traces back to the Triassic Period, about 220 million years ago. Strict application of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature would make Palmae has been accepted as a legitimate alternative. The Palm family compares nearly 2,800 species in 210 or more genera. 


They are widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics; very few species occur in Asia (about 1,385 species), particularly in the Indo-Malayan region, and in tropical America (about 1,147 species). especially in northeastern South America. Only about 117 species are native to Africa. One of the hardiest of the tree palms is the windmill palm, Trachycarpus fortunei, of eastern Asia, which is cultivated outdoors in milder maritime climates as far north as Vancouver, Canada. The most cold-tolerant palm is the needle palm, Rhapidophyllum hystrix of the southeastern United States: it can survive temperatures of 21 C (-6 F). 


In addition to the commonly recognized treelike forms, which may reach 30 m (100 ft) high, there are those with stems completely underground and those with vine like steams. The long, thin, rope like stems of the rattan palms, Calamus and Daemonorops, which may climb 60 m (200 ft) into the treetops, are the rattan cane used commercially. The leaves of the faffia palms, Raphia, are the largest in the plant kingdom, exceeding 20 m (65 ft) in length, and are the source of raffia fiber. 


Palm flower are typically small and may be borne singly, in pairs, in threes (triads), in small clusters (cincinni), in small lines (acervuli), or in large clusters (panicles). The flower cluster or segments are often enclosed at their bases by a leaflike spathe (bract), which is frequently yellowish in color. Palm flowers may be bisexual but are usually unisexual. Palm trees are usually monoecious, bearing both mare and female unisexual flowers on the same tree, but some species are dioecious, with separate male and female trees, or polygamous, with both unisexual and bisexual flowers on the same tree. Palm fruit is botanically a berry, nut, or drupe, depending in part upon the structure of the flower ovary. The coconut (with husk) is a drupe, a fruit technically like that of the peach but dry and fibrous instead of fleshy. Since prehistory, palms have provided thatch for shelter; fibers for weaving, plaiting, and basketry; timber for constructing buildings, tools, and utensils; leaves for clothing and food; and sap for beverage. Throughout tropical Asia the commonest palm product in use is the fruit of the betel-nut palm, Areca Catechu, which is chewed as a stimulant. 
The sap drawn tapping the unopened flower buds of several kinds of palm produces palm wine, or toddy, as from Caryota urens; an alcoholic beverage called arrack, from Cocos nucifera; or sugar, from Borassus flabellifer and Arenga pinnata. Formost among African palms is the date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, cultivated since ancient times throughout the Middle East. 
Many countries use palm oil - as a vegetable oil, in Margarine and sweets, in in pharmaceuticals, and in the manufacture of soaps, candles, and lubricating greases. The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineensis native to Africa but now widely cultivated in others areas, is the most important source of palm oil.
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Karimunjawa Marine National Parks

Karimunjawa marine national park is located west from Jepara. This area consists of 27 islands and only four inhabited islands are Karimunjawa Island (4.302 ha), Kemujan Island (1.501 ha), Parang Island (690 ha) and Nyamuk Island (125 ha). Karimunjawa marine national park is a marine conservation area with the potential flora, fauna and marine ecosystems are typical. There are found 33 species of coral reefs and other marine biota of the coral reef  develop complex ecosystem but fragile. Unfortunately, until now there is damage to coral reefs that are serious enough in the territorial waters of several islands in the Marine National Park.
The occurrence of damage in one of the internal components of the ecosystem of coral reefs will largely affect the survival of the other components as a whole. The existence of coral reefs contribute to the survival of many species at times reach more than 3,000 species, but the diversity and abundance of biota which cannot be justified if the operating pressure exceeds the carrying capacity of coral reefs.
To maintain the existence of coral reefs, the local population plays very important role in the conservation of coral reefs. Most local citizens of karimunjawa traditional lifestyles as fishermen.












Potential of Karimunjawa Marine National Parks


Fishery Potential
Usually the waters of coral reefs have high productivity but it is a closed ecosystem. The fish densities are high and can't be maintained continuously for the intense pressure overload and should be avoided. For fish species that has a fairly high economic value, have been tried to cultivate it, such as : Baronang (Siganus spp), Kakap (Lates calcarifer), snapper (Lutjanus altifrontalis) and grouper (Epinephelus spp).


Marine Algae Potential
Marine algae have an important role in marine life and some of them beneficial to mankind. in marine ecosystems, marine algae (seaweed) has a major role in the food chain cycle, because it can produce organic substances from inorganic elements. Seaweed is also important for marine organisms as food and shelter or nesting places. Seaweed for human use as food, medicines, cosmetics, animal feed, organic fertilizer, etc.
The potential of seaweed in Indonesia when cultivated intensively still inadequate for the world needs, because the world demand for seaweed is 10 times that of existing inventory worldwide.


Sea Cucumber Potential
Sea cucumbers in China, Hong Kong and many other countries well known as food. Cultivation of sea urchins have good prospects as an export commodity and requires considerable capital. The methods of sea cucumbers cultivation is simple and does not require big capital. Sea cucumbers food's such as algae, plankton detrius, small mollusks that available in natural waters.


Crab Potential
Crab cultivation in Indonesia has not received attention comparison with the cultivation of other marine fauna. The consumption needs gain from crab catch. Hall of brackish waters of Central Java have been successfully developed techniques crab cultivation. This is a good implement breakthrough for crab potential in Karimunjawa marine National Parks. (Source : Proceeding Ekplorasi Karimunjawa, UGM Yogyakarta / CC by sa)







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Gunung Halimun National Park

Image Source : birdquest-tours.com


Gunung Halimun, located in West Java, covers three regencies, namely Lebak, Sukabumi and Bogor. The Area was first gazetted as a nature reserve under the decree of the Minister of Forestry No. 40/KPTS/Um/1/1979 covering an area 41.710 ha and then converted as a National Park in Februari 1992.
Located 1500 m above sea level with 5 mountains and several types of vegetation, this area is one of the best and largest remaining forest are on the island of Java. 
Image Source : dephut.co.id
This area has a high biodiversity value, in terms of its flora and fauna. According to the Biological Science Club's Report (BScC, 1992), the Gunung Halimun National Park has about 1000 species of plants, including several species of rare orchids. It also has 130 species of birds, 12 species of which are endemic on Java, such as Javanese eagle (Spezialatus Bartlesi), Wild pheasant (Lophura Javanica), Psatria axilis, Groeias al-bonotus and Garrulax rufirons. Among other animals listed are 11 species of squirrel, 6 species of civet, 7 species of cave bat, 7 species of otter, and 4 species of primate, i.e Hylobates moloch, Presbytis comata, Presbytis aygulu and Macaca fascicularis. 
Local communities around the Gunung Halimun National Park are dependent on the forest resources for housing materials, tools, handicraft, and traditional ceremonies. This has led to a complicated situation. At the same time, the area also faces a serious threat of denudation caused by gold mining exploration and exploitation carried out by PT. Aneka Tambang.
Based on the results of the BScC's research, investigation and recomendation, in February 1992 the nature reserve status of the Gunung Halimun was finally converted to National Park. (Navy Panekenan)

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Compost

Compost is the result of a process of organic materials with the help of bacteria. Compost is not only the elements of N, P, K is so different from synthetic fertilizers. Compost contains many micro-nutrients Fe, S, Ca, Ng. This element is not present in artificial fertilizers in general. The main function of the compost is to improve the structure and improve soil quality. 
                                   Image Source : http.taspu.co.id
This is steps to make compost :
- collect organic waste (waste from kitchens, gardens, livestock and Septi tanks).
- choose organic and inorganic materials.
- cut into small pieces for large material.
- mixing wet and dry organic materials.
- put it in the boxes or packed in the stack height up to 1 metre before 
  this material included should preferably cover the lower part with 
  branch, so that the air circulation more smoothly and avoid water 
  stagnation.
- control the temperature of the water content, scent, dampness and 
   acidity.
- remove from the box, while temperatures below 45 degrees Celsius, 
  when using the stack must be changed every two weeks.
- put into another box to maturation over the past two weeks.
- filtering first, before use it, so the rough can be used again, hole sieve 
   between 5-25 mm.
- It has been able to use compost.

                                                   Image Source : http.taspu.co.id
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Kepulauan Seribu National Park



This national park was established in 1982 as the first marine national park in Indonesia. This area is a series of islands consisting of more than 100 coral islands that stretches 80 km north of Jakarta Bay. The islands and coral reef is home to a large number of species of fish and mollusks and the northern part of the the archipelago is an area where sea turtles lay their eggs. The islands are also home to hundreds of people living as fishermen or those whose jobs relate to marine resources. Recently, some residents also worked at the resort, which is located in these areas. But they still low income of the local population and health problems, as well as clean water which continues to affect the quality of life of local communities.
With a relatively large population and increasing use of some islands to serve as a tourist resort, has brought this region into one of the first areas to implement systems for the utilization of appropriate zoning.
Zoning will create several different utilization's :
- core preservation zone that should not be disturbed at all.
- protection zone which allows limited usage.
intensive use areas and buffer zones, allow the existence of economic activities, 
  including tourism & fisheries.
Because it is quite close to Jakarta then the problem of loading and unloading ships, garbage disposal, various forms of pollution, large-scale fishing, reef explosion, dredging sludge and improper land use, continue to threaten the existence of the region as a place of preservation. To anticipate this, then pursued several training national park staff, development and deployment of the navigation code for divers and visitors to national parks, monitoring of coral reefs and sea turtles nest and also prepare an integrated management plan of assistance to the Jakarta Bay. Have also made efforts to seek alternative sources of income for local fishermen engaged in fishing practices using cyanide poisoning and explosion rocks to meet the demand for aquarium decoration.
Roads that can be passed in order to enter the National Park is through the Marina Ancol beach, located in the northern part of Jakarta. Information center located on the Pramuka Island taken within an hour away by motorboat. From the central islands of the core conservation zone can be visited by charter boats or vessels owned by the national park. Some of the island with a resort can be reached by plane from the local airport in Jakarta. I hope you and your family can visit and admire the sights of Kepulauan Seribu National Park.




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Horizontal Lines Of Light In The Eye

At night, If we watched the lights on the road with eyes half closed, everything seems blurred into perpendicular lines. If you tilt your head, and all lines should be tilted, too, a sign that it happened in the eyes.
The problem here is the reflection of light on a tear in the upper eyelid and lower lip, the reflection of water in miniature. Eyes saw a bright light is normal, because the reflection coupled with tears. When eyes almost closed, tears flooded fit directly in front of the pupil, so the reflected light formed a long lines at the retina.
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Cable Car

Father with his two children walking at the path which lies below wires of cable car from it's base to the top of the mountain. When they rested on the trip, the father said: "We are now at the half way of the mountain", where he learned this?
Both the cable car that relies on the wire and with elektromotor mobilized at the base of the mountain - drawn endless wire, up and down the mountain. In this movement up and down the train carriage counterweight. So the two trains that depart from the top and bottom at the same time and met right in the middle of the road.
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Coach and Carriage

The English stagecoach, a variation on the heavier mail coach, was modified to accommodate passengers on top of the vehicle as well as within it. These coaches were brightly colored, and the names of the way stations were emblazoned on the sides. They became known as "stage" coaches because the long-distance journeys were divided into stages; at each stage the horses and drivers were changed (1).
The introduction of elliptical, or under, springs in 1804 enabled coaches and carriages to be lighter and more comfortable to their passengers. The survey (2) and The Buggy (3), both of light construction, were American adaptations of, respectively, the English phaeton and gig. The Survey was designed for family use and was often topped with a fringed roof; The buggy sometimes featured a folding hood and a rear seat for a groom. Each vehicle was drawn by a single horse, although the survey could be modified to accommodate two horses.
The English phaeton, a light, four-wheeled carriage driven by the owner, became popular during the 19th century. Both the lady's or park, phaeton (4) and the stanhope phaeton (5) were elegant town carriages. The mail phaeton (6) the heaviest of the type, was drawn by two horses and more closely resembled a coach.
A governess, or tub, cart (7) was designed for children; it was entered through a back door and lacked a front-facing driver's seat.



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Kerak Telor

Kerak telor is made of sticky rice, egg, coconut, dried shrimps, small chili pepper and spices like onion, garlic, candlenut, laurellike leaf, lime leaf, lemongrass, pepper, salt and palm sugar. Its cooking process is long enough. Sticky rice is soaked overnight. Coconut is shredded, seasoned and fried without oil. Onion is sliced and fried. After that, with pail, sticky rice is dried in a wok. Then, coconut, dried shrimps, fried onion and egg are added to the wok. When the new mix is done and formed a crust, the wok is reversed until kerak telor became brown. This delicious food can served up in two ways. 
First, it is laid on a paper and stuffed with a spoon of spicy dry-fried shredded coconut, dried shrimps and fried onion, then folded. Another way, just lay it on a plate as we serve up on omelette. And its shape, actually resembles omelette which is stuffed with sticky rice. Whatever you do to serve It up, it's more delicious to eat kerak telor while hot. And if you like, add small chilli pepper slices. 



Well, if you are really found of a unique food, please come by the Jakarta Fair. Find one of tens of kerak telor "angkrings" (a long carrying pole with hampers on either end) and ask the man who is called 'bang' or 'abang' because he is usually the native of Betawi. Are they all natives ? No. they aren't. Many of these seasonal vendors are Sundanese from Garut, West Java. But it's okay. It means more people conserve this scarce food, doesn't it? And as the result, we hope, still we can enjoy a delicious and salty taste of kerak telor, whenever we want. But, who can predict its destiny under the 'floods' of import fast food?