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Comics and Animations into Graphic Art

Within the last three months, paintings styled on comics and animations, designs similar to street art and media in graphic art format, have suddenly been all the rage. Several key venues in Indonesia's art world, at least in Jakarta, such as those in Jl. Kemang Raya. Art Space in Jl. Hang Tuah, Galeri Nasional Indonesia (GNI) and some new places like Jakarta Art District (JAD) in Grand Indonesia Plaza are full of the works of young artists.
Through group exhibitions and with some going solo, it is as if they have an agreement to explore comic forms, street art or animamix art. There is a unique style presented in their works. Looking at their format, with most of the paintings or graphic works being on canvas, is of course a different matter. But it seems certain marketing strategies that absorb his style trend are more dominant. And don't forget, they create monoprint works individually. This will make collectors feel secure, there is no original master for printed works. So then, as we have so much choice in terms of art shows, it is only right that we choose the sytle that reminds us of conventional graphic art works which also shows the transformation into the contemporary theme and spirit evoked by the imaginations of young artists.
The medium of expression is monoprint and the promotor is Andi's Gallery. Most of participating artists have received awards for their graphic art works although they are mostly graduates from the fine art departments in their respective arts academies. On a daily basis, they work as print makers, graphic designers, sometimes creating comic books, or contributing to murals or graffiti, working in the cyber-animation world and participating in Graphic Triennale.
They exude the spirit of contemporary print makers, familiar with the digital and cyber media world while continuing to work on manual printing. This is why curators have to work hard to catagorize their works. Will they be labeled old/conventional or contemporary graphic art works?
Most of them, because they want to be labelled "conventional graphic arts", at least for the exhibition in Andi's Gallery, used hardboard cuts to print on canvas. The wood fibres are still expressive - not in the style of more refined and very detailed modern engravings - and they have reatined the hand colouring/painting. Some used the silk screen medium which reminds us of the pop art style of the seventies.
Animation-comic or illustrative style are found in the works of A.C Andre Tanama, Agus Yulianto, Ariswan Adhitama, Daniel Timbul Cahya Khrisna, Fransisco Panca Nugraha, Irwantho Lentho, Sigit Purnomo, and Teguh Hariyantha. Some of these artists use their canvases to depict scenes of conversing figures. The canvas becomes something like a single comic box whereas animation shapes appear in robot forms that bring to mind the anime-gamers digital world.
We can also find artists who are exploring monoprint graphic art in abstract forms. The canvas becomes a spread of colours and composition fields consisting of geometric of biomorphic shapes, like the works of A.T. Sitompul or Syaiful Aulia Garibaldi.
The only senior painter, Tisna Sanjaya makes an appearance with his woks using charcoal. Where does the term monoprint fit into Tisna's oeuvre? For the artist working on his arts doctorate in Yogyakarta Arts Institute (ISI), he uses his own body as printer by putting paint all over it and transfering the paint onto the canvas.
Although it is under the banner or monoprint, and is referred to as a graphic arts exhibition, the term animation-comic style is more appropriate for this show because these styles are indeed dominant. Will this distinctive feature via the medium of graphic art, with Indonesia comic-illustration-animation styles, really become a trend ?

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Losari Coffee Plantation

Everything changes when you step across the threshold of clubhouse at Losari Spa Retreat and Coffee Plantation. The bright, white mountain light gives way to cool grey and brown shadows. The buzz of jungle crickets and the electric hum of the hillsides are ostracized by building's stolid, colonial walls. Even the humidity seems to hover at the clubhouse's doorway, as if scared to enter a coolness that has taken nearly 200 years to manifest itself fully and now stands sentinel against even the hottest, muggiest February day. The clubhouse, one of just two remaining buildings that once formed part of this original Dutch colonial estate, is not just adept at keeping the Javanese elements at bay. Standing inside its four walls, one gets the overwhelming feeling that the passing of time has also been refused entry at the doorway. Time doesn't have ticket. Time doesn't meet the requisite dress code. Time is not welcome here.The resort's reception area, housed in a salvaged and rebuilt historic wooden train station that once sheltered passengers in nearby Jepara, promises of Losari's advertisements might just live up to their word. Losari Coffee Plantation gives the impression of being surrounded on all sides by mountains. That's because its surrounded on all sides by mountains. At the resort's elevation, the mountain air is cool, though hardly crisp, and the sun seemed more willing to poke its face through the clouds to bask upon the mountains that it had back at sea level in Yogyakarta. Java Red, the resort's impeccable premier restaurant overlooking yet more mountains (four are visible from the deck, including an eversmoking Merapi) and listening to the drip of the dew in the trees and the calls of the wildlife all around. The impressive breakfast list tempted with a variety of treats : truffle and mushroom omelet, freshly baked French pastries, and even traditional New York bagel and lox (that's smoked salmon for non-residents of the Big Apple). And of course there was the freshly roasted coffee deep, robust and meaningful. After soaking up the sun for a couple of hours in the resort's wonderful infinity pool, which seemed to be intent on pouring itself right into the jungle. the tour of Losari Coffee Plantation Area.Losari Coffee Plantation, by its management's unabashed admission, a resort that also grows coffee as opposed to a coffee plantation that also houses guests. But there's nothing amateurish about the way the plantation's staff treats the 22 acres of Robusta, Arabica, and local coffee bushels or the way they dry, roast and brew their coffee.The smells, the sights and sounds of the beautiful little plantation was very delighted, and we can tried grinding some coffee beans with the help of tour guide.
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The Exotic Ceto Temple On The Side Of Mount Lawu

At 1,400 meter's above sea level, on the western slopes of Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Jawa, there stands a temple. These are the archeological remains of the Kingdom of Majapahit from the mid 14th century and the temple is believed to have supranatural powers within its exotic shape.
Candi Ceto, candi means temple looks like the building of Pura Besakih, one of the biggest Hindu temples in Bali. Its grandiose main entrance, layered on all levels, indeed gives an impression of the concept of Hindu worship. And, in accordance with the king who commisioned its building, that is King Brawijaya V of the Kingdom of Majapahit in East Jawa, this temple does have a history rooted in Hindu teaching, the religion that the king embraced.
Although it has a Hindu background, Candi Ceto's form is different from other Hindu temples built in 7th and 8th centuries in Centra Java such as Prambanan Temple. It is fair to say that this temple is a building with special and unique form of architecture, a work of contemporary art in its time. To reach this temple from Solo in a car, you'll need about an hour. Around 10 kilometres from the Ceto's temple, the roads starts to twist and climb.
The higher you get, the more it twists and the steeper it gets. Another note for drivers do not be tempted to look right and left to enjoy the gorgeous views of the fertile slopes, if you want to savour the equatorial beauty of this absolute gem of a location, you'd better stop your vehicle and enjoy the views across the lovely expanse of tea plantations.The air of Ceto Temple region is cool up here at 1,400 metres and there is a spectacular panorama. It is even more beautiful in the evening when Karanganyar and Surakarta are bathed in colourful lights. From the courtyard, we can already feel the vibe of the temple's Ceto grandeur and sacredness.
The towering gate with Mount Lawu in the background feels as though it is taking visitors into another dimension. Walking onto the first terrace, we encounter two statues in respectful poses as if they are welcoming us to go up to the next level. Archeologists say when the temple was found by one of their Dutch predecessors in 1842, there were about 14 levels (courtyard).
But in the 1970s the Ceto temple was restored by people entrusted with the task by President Suharto and their work was based on mystical concepts and so now there are only 9 terraces. Experts think that the renovation not following archeological references was a mistake.
This explains the announcement posted on the Candi Sukuh information board that the restoration was carried out by a new order businessman and is in conflict with archeological principles. However, despite the for and against arguments, the artefact from the end of the kingdom of Majapahit is both unique and artistic.
It is terraced and each terrace is marked with a gate. Perhaps one of the most defining things in Ceto temple is the statue on the seventh terrace. A phallus with a ball pierced on its top beside a mortar (for pounding rice) which probably symbolizes female genitals.
The two genitals symbols with exotic shape are believed to have several meanings, one of which is fertility. Then there are a big turtle and various creepy crawlies artistically arranged.
On this terrace the followers of Kejawen (Javanese traditional beliefs) perform their rituals and meditations.These symbols of phallus and vagina are actually a different form of the statues of Lingga and Yoni found in many earlier Hindu temples, with a different design which makes them look like a UFO landing site if seen from above.
On subsequent terraces there are many statues and reliefs of Sudhamala, and also of Sabdo Palon and Noyoginggong believed to be King Brawijaya V's beloved servants. On the 8th terraces, on the left side, there is a quite big phallus complete with an incense bowl in front of it. On the last terrace there is a cut pyramid on top of which sits a cubical altar which always has a red and white cloth wrapped around it.
That's the exotic Candi Ceto on the slopes of Mount Lawu, which right up till the present day is used for worship by the followers of Kejawen and Hindus from Java and Bali.

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Bicycle Moment

A bicycle is two-wheeled vehicle propelled by its rider. The most energy-efficient means of transportation, the bicycle is used through out the world. Particularly in developing countries-most notably in China, where some 154 million bicycles are on the road. The vehicle has been a common form of local transportation for many years.
The first step toward the development of the bicycle was the invention of the celerifere or wooden horse, probably in France in the 1790s. Because its front wheel was fixed, this vehicle could not be steered, and the rider propelled it by pushing his or her feet along the ground. An important advance was made by the German baron Karl von Drais in 1817, when he introduced a steerable front wheel, creating the draisienne, or dandy horse. In 1838, Kirkpatrick Macmillan, a Scottish blacksmith, made the first machine with pedals, which were attached to and drove the rear wheel by means of cranks. On the velocipede, a French invention of 1852, the front wheel was pedal driven and revolved once with each revolution of the pedals. The speed of the machine was dependent on the size of the front wheel. The larger the wheel, the faster the bicycle. The front wheel of the high-wheel, or pennyfarthing-used from 1870s-reached diameters of 1.5 m and more, while the back wheel might be only one-quarter that size. With its seat mounted over the huge front wheel, the high-wheel was dangerously unstable, and its use on poor roads led to many bicycling accidents.
An English "safety bicycle", with a chain and sprocket driving the rear wheel, was introduced by H.J Lawson in 1887. In 1885 a safety designed by J.K. Starley, which had wheels of equal size, became the basic model for the modern bicycle.


Photos by : Goenadi Haryanto

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Space Medicine


Space medicine is the brand of medicine involved in protecting human beings from the environment of space, at the same time, studying their reactions to that environment. The foundations of space medicine can be traced back to aviation medicine, and the term aerospace medicine has evolved to encompass activity in both areas. Aerospace medicine has been a certified sub specialty of the American Board of Preventive Medicine since 1953. In addition to physicians, however, engineers, veterinarians, dentists, nurses, physiologists, psychologists, bacteriologists, toxicologists, pharmacologists, and biochemists, also work in the field of space medicine. Specialist in space medicine are involved in all aspects of space flight, from spacecraft design and crew selection to flight operations and post flight review.

The early history of spaceflight was characterized by deep concern on the part of many scientists that human would not be able to withstand the rigors of spaceflight especially during lunch and reentry, and might not be able to function usefully in space. As a result of this concern, the United States flew a number of monkeys aboard captured German V-2 rockets between 1948 and 1952. These early flights provided some launch and reentry data on comparable life forms and demonstrated the need for effective and reliable life-support system. Between 1949 and 1956 the Soviet Union flew 15 similar flights using dogs, some flights reaching an altitude of 213 km (132 mi). A dog named Laika was then launched aboard sputnik 2 on Nov. 3, 1957, and orbited the Earth for seven days until she was finally euthanatized. Between 1958 and 1961 the United States flew monkeys in several suborbital and orbital missions. These flights showed that pulse and respiration rates, blood pressure, and performance of specific tasks for which the monkeys had been trained were basically unaffected by spaceflight.
On Apr.  12, 1961, the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin demonstrated for the first time that human beings could safely orbit the earth. His flight confirmed a U.S. decision to use human rather than animals on succeeding spaceflights. The U.S. program proceeded cautiously, however, by gradually increasing the exposure time of humans in space and by carefully observing and reviewing the effects of each flight. The six U.S. astronauts who flew on project Mercury between May 1961 and May 1963 returned in good health, and as result, many of earlier medical concern about spaceflight were dispelled. 

The physiological functions of human crews in space have been measured by a variety of means over the years, ranging from simple sensors place on the body to monitor heart rate and respiration, to the use of techniques such as echocardiography and electroencephalography. The many thousands of hours of information thus gained on human activity in a weightless environment have proved that people can perform assigned tasks well and need suffer no permanent postflight physiological changes, even after missions lasting several months. To maintain an acceptable state of health, however, space crew do require an appropriate atmosphere, adequate food and rest periods, and sufficient time to acclimatize to space and also to the return to earth. The atmosphere, pressure, and temperature of spacecraft interiors are always strictly controlled in order to avoid serious or even fatal health hazards such as explosive decompression of the craft, the onset of decompression sickness, carbon dioxide narcosis, hypoxia, and other such problems. All material used in or brought aboard spacecraft are tasted beforehand for the potential release of toxic substances when in the spacecraft environment. As the late 1980s, seven human fatalities could be attributed to errors or malfunctions in life-support systems. 
An important concern is the radiation encountered in space since excessive exposure to such radiation can result in greater likelihood of developing certain kinds of cancer. A crew's exposure to radiation on many factors : 
- The type and length of the mission.
- The amount of shielding on the spacecraft.
- The relative altitude of the craft's orbit.
- The activity on the sun during the period of flight.
The average skin radiation close received on the Apollo missions ranged from 0.16 to 1.14 rads. which is less than the dose received with some diagnostic X-ray procedures. Another environmental concern is that of the natural circadian (24 hour) cycle of human body rhythms. These rhythms are maintained in the U.S.  program by keeping their crew on Houston time, and in the Soviet program by keeping their crew on Moscow time. The Soviet Union has attempted to alter the circadian rhythms of their cosmonauts by having them awaken 20 minutes earlier on each day during a long-term flight, but such efforts have not proved successful and are no longer tried.