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Fleet Facts







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Liveaboard Komodo Tour





Komodo National Park is part of the province of East Nusa Tenggara and home to some of the world's greatest wealth of flora and fauna biota. True to its namesake, the are is also the native habitat of the very ancient and the largest living species of lizard in the world, the Komodo dragon. The park is thus a fitting nominee for the status of one the new 7 wonders of nature.
This nature paradise can now be enjoyed through various liveaboard tour programmes, under the umbrella of which, several well-equipped operators offer tour packages designed to give intrepid adventurers experiences that they'll remember for the rest of their lives. 




Some of these operators even offer luxurious accomodation as well. Tours start from Bali or Lombok, and can serve as a starting point to uncovering the full splendour of this exotic part of the world.




Tourist are also able to create their own schedules that take in their own choices of activities and desired destinations. This can include a visit to the Komodo National Park to see the larger-than-life Komodo dragons, a trek further up the coast to Rinca Island, or some simple relaxing and snorkelling at Pink Beach and the other virgin-white, sandy beaches that ring the island. Visitors to Komodo and its surrounding area can also dive, swim with manta rays, visit traditional villages and than later on, spent the night onboard the boat and enjoy scheduled events and activities.




There are several operators currently offering fun tour packages to Komodo Island. 
These includes Perama Tours (www.peramatour.com), Komodo Liveboard (www.komodoliveboard.com), Mermaid Liveaboard (www.mermaid-liveaboard.com) and Dive Komodo (www. divekomodo.com)
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Kerinci Seblat National Park


Kerinci Seblat National Park covering 1.3 million hectares, this national park is the largest in Sumatra. It's area spans four provinces - West Sumatra, Jambi, Bengkulu, and South Sumatra and its along the South Bukit Barisan chain of mountains.
In Kerinci Seblat National Park Jungles, live rare animals, such as the Sumatran tiger, the Sumatran elephant, and the Sumatran rhinoceros. The largest flower in the world - raflesia arnoldi, and the highest - amorphophallius sp - also bloom on its soil. Another highlight of Kerinci Seblat National Park is the highest fresh water lake in South East Asia, which is located 1,900 metres above sea level. Kerinci Seblat is named after two tall mountains, which are collectively known as the roof of Sumatra. Since 2001, the Danau Kerinci Festival has been held in this Area on a regular basis, and has been attended  by various performance arts group from Sumatra. This enjoyable celebration usually take place in February.
How to get there ?
Due to Kerinci Seblat National Park, which spans four provinces, this National Park is accessible from many place, fly to padang, Jambi, Bengkulu or Palembang and continue travelling to the park overland.
Information on Kerinci Seblat can be found at www.kerinco.org.
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Turn off your cell phone before you Board the Plane





It's very important to turn off your cell phone before you board the plane because modern aircraft depend greatly on radio waves to perform numerous functions, such as communication with the control tower, navigation, and regulation of cabin atmosphere. Radio wave interference from a cell phone seriously disturb these function.
You may not be aware that even when your cell phone is on standby it still sends out an electromagnetic signal that notifies the cellular network’s computer that the phone is active and can be contacted. The signal becomes stronger when the transmitter at the base terminal station (BTS) communicates with the cell phone to send a voice call or short message (SMS).
Actually, once the aircraft has taken off and approaches its cruising altitude, your cell phone will not work anyway, because the plane is too far from the BTS. Furthermore, the plane move so fast that once the phone’s presence has been detected and registered by a cell in the cellular network, the phone is no longer within that’s cell range. Yet if your cell phone is active, it is continually emitting electromagnetic signals that could seriously disrupt the aviation equipment.
Law No. 1/2009 regulates the use of handphones as stipulated in Article XXII Section 412 paragraph 5-7, which states that every person in an aircraft during flight who operates electronic equipment that interfere with aviation navigation, as referred to in Article 54 letter f, shall be punished with imprisonment of 2 (two) years or a fine of Rp. 200.000.000,- (two hundred million rupiahs).
The next paragraph states that if the accident resulted in damage or loss of aircraft and property, he or she shall be punished with imprisonment of 5 (five) years and maximum fine of Rp. 2.500.000.000 (two billion five hundred million rupiah). If his or her action resulted in permanent disability of death of person, he or she is liable to imprisonment of 15 (fifteen) years.

Article 431 paragraph 1-2 states that every person using a radio frequency, apart for flight activity purposes, that directly or indirectly interferes with aviation safety referred to an Article 306 shall be punished with imprisonment of 5 (five) years and a maximum of fine of Rp. 100.000.000,- (one hundred million rupiah), while paragraph 2 states that a criminal act as referred to in paragraph (1) that results in the death of person(s) shall be imprisoned 15 (fifteen) year and fined a maximum amount of Rp. 100.000.000,-.
So for your own safety and that of your fellow passengers, you must turn off your cell phone as soon as you enter the plane. If you have a phone in your carry-on luggage, check to make sure that it is turned completely off. The regulation has become the main agenda for Garuda Indonesia Airways.
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Orchid Treatment



Orchids have long been used as traditional herbal medicine with the kingdom in the past. Like China, Japan, India, Egypt and Turkey, including Indonesia. On the continent of Asia, the people of China, Japan, India and Indonesia use medicinal plants for health needs. Approximately 7300 plant species have been used by the public for orchid treatment as Chinese herbal medicine. This makes China the leading country in the utilization of medicinal plants. As one of the world's oldest source of medicine, particularly herbal medicines, orchid plants have been widely used by Chinese people long ago. Plants from several families Ochidaceae this genus by the Chinese people have been used as medicinal plants, among others, Dendrobium, Malaxis, Gastrodia, Bletilla and Anoectochillus.
Several species of this genus have been described above even in the materia medica, written at the time of Emperor Shen-nung-28 century BC. Traditional medicinal products derived from Dendrobium even have long traded in china specially for orchid treatment.
In china, dendrobium used as an herbal medicine is very big. Dendrobium orchids potential as a drug because it produces a variety of important metabolites, some of which are alkaloids. The main alkaloids and most often found on dendrobium is dendrobine. Orchids are also well known in the Arab region and especially in Egypt, Turkey and some parts of the kingdom, particularly Mecca, Jeddah, is known to have high nutritional value. The Orchid treatment commonly used type of ground orchid (orchis mascula). In Cairo, known by the name Sahlab, which has shaped and colored white powder, when taken a bit and feels like flour or tapioca starch, many people believe that Sahlab useful as a sexual stimulant, is usually consumed in the sweet taste by adding sugar or honey. 
In Indonesia has a wealth of very large plants. Wealth of orchid species that exist in Indonesia one of the largest in the world, far beyond China. Species such as Dendrobium, Malaxis, and even found Vanilla which is good for orchid treatment. Habits of indigenous peoples and tribes in Indonesia who have long used plants as medicine.
Orchids are not only functions as an ornamental plant, but can be used for various types of treatment.
Several ways of orchid treatment
- Brain cancer (Take the flowers, stems, leaves and roots of orchids pigeons. 
  Then rinse thoroughly and then mash finely. After that mix with 100 cc of boiled water. 
  Squeeze and strain, and drink once a day).
- Hacking Cough (Take the orchid stem nodules (pholidota chinesis Lindi) as much 
  as 50 grams of finely ground and squeezed water, filtered, and drink as well. 
  Perform treatment 3 times a day, morning, afternoon and evening after meals).
- Rheumatic (Take all parts of orchid tubers as much as 60 grams and then washed and 
  boiled in 400 ml of boiling water for 15 minutes. Results stew after a cold, filtered and 
  drink as well. Treatment carried out 2 times a day morning and afternoon).
- Respiratory Illness (Treatment of respiratory disease is a type of orchid that used 
  ground orchid (Bletilla striata) of the family Orchidaceae. 
  The flowers are long-stemmed pink to purple. 
  Orchid boiled and added powdered orchid bulbs and drink).
Uterus Bleeding (Take one teaspoon of powdered orchid bulbs, then mixed with a glass of 
  cold water and put on the fire, stir then add the sugar. After boiling, remove and let cool drinks.
- Children Growing (Take the orchid to eat flour sugar, milk and honey as food for the kids or 
   extra milk to drink).
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Pineapple Efficacy



Pineapple fruit has a golden yellow color and has a efficacy for our bodies. What it is ? following information.
Pineapple tree can thrive in a tropical climate like in Indonesia with a relatively short harvest period, which ranges from 2 to 3 times a year. That is the main reason why a lot of pineapple tree plantations in ​​Indonesia region, and the affordable price of pineapple fruit for Indonesia's population. Pineapple fruit is not from Indonesia but from Latin American countries like Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. One of the pineapple efficacy is useful for beauty and health, but the skin of the pineapple fruit is useful for cleaning marble. Pineapple fruit also contains phitochemical which is good for health. Phitochemical is substance, not the nutrients found in plants that have useful biological activity for out body, as an antioxidant. In addition, pineapple fruit contains the enzyme bromelain which can also change the protein in milk, meat and gelatin makes food ingredients into wet.
The Other pineapple efficicacy of pineapple fruit acids will not harmful to people with ulcers. Photchemicalnya womb can lower a high pH to be able to control stomach acid. To improve the usability of the pineapple fruit is better taken as a whole. Pineapple fruit is usually consumed to a mixture of fruit and iced fruit soup. But keep in mind pineapple fruit can be processed into typical Indonesian food such as: dodol and keripik. In order for pineapple fruit can be used optimally, recognizing the quality of pineapple fruit including pineapple choose ripe fruit, do not be damaged or brown color, and contain high water content.

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Fruit and Vegetable Skin For Medicine



Skin of fruits or vegetables are not as fruits itself. The skin of fruits or vegetables may taste bitter, acidic, or in bad taste, people tend to throw it away. In fact, in the skin of fruits and vegetables contains nutrients that can fight cancer, increase energy, and so on.


Kiwi Fruit
Haired skin of the kiwi fruit contains high antioxidants that act as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antialergen. Skin of Kiwi fruit contains three times more antioxidants than flesh. So that the skin can fight bacteria such as Staphylococus and e-coli caused food poisoning. Skin of Kiwi fruit  which is not too sour is gold type that taste more sweet than the other. The Skin of gold Kiwi fruit not too hairy, but it provides the same benefits. If you make a Kiwi juice don't peeled its skin.
Banana Fruit
Researchers in Taiwan found that banana peel extract can remove the depression because it contains serotonin, a chemical that balances the mood. Banana peel is also good for the eyes because it contains lutein, an antioxidant that protects cells from the eye from ultaviolet rays that causes cataract.
How to eat this banana peel ? 
Banana peel boiled for 10 minutes, then drink boiling water that has been cold, or make as juice.
Garlic
According to researchers from Japan, garlic skin contains six different antioxidant compounds. Peeling garlic can remove the phenylpropanoid antioxidants that help fight the aging process and protects the heart. How to eat it is to pour over olive oil 1 garlic clove and then save over the tray along with grilled chicken or vegetables.
Citrus Fruit
Orange peel and tangerine have the kind of powerful antioxidants called superflavonoids, which can reduce levels of bad cholesterol significantly, without lowering good cholesterol. Antioxidants derived from the skin of citrus fruit has 20 times more powerful than that obtained from the juice. Citrus fruits, white marrow contains a high pectin, which is a component of dietary fiber known to lower cholesterol and fight with the good bacteria.
How to eat it : Add grated citrus fruit peel into the cauliflower, cheese or cakes and muffins. Or, put the whole peeled citrus fruit into juice so you get all the benefits.
Potato
Most people know that the potato skin is healthy, but no one knows why. The skin is a source of nutrients from the potatoes. Handful of potato skins provide half the daily intake of soluble fiber, potassium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, and c vitamin. Every pound of potatoes contain more vitamin C than oranges, so it is good for anyone who wants to prevent the flu. 
How to eat : baked potato skins, boiled and mashed with the skin gets mashed potatoes or cut into wedges, dip it in a small amount of olive oil, then baked potato slices.
Kaffir Lime
Kaffir lime skin to relieve pain rather than just a cold, cough, or for shampoo. Through this research, the benefits of this plant is more powerful herb, which can be used to enhance immunity. It can even be an antioxidant that helps stabilize the immune system for patients with cancer. Kaffir Lime skin even potentially become a substitute drug doxorubicin or guardian of the immune system for cancer patients after surgery or cancer chemotherapy.
How to make the drug from the skin is quite simple, peel the Kaffir lime , take the skin off, washed as needed and then heated in an oven until dry. The dry Kaffir lime skin grown into a fine powder. Powder stored in a cup and mixed with ethanol as a solvent.
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The Eskimo (Part 2)



Clothing and Transportation. Traditionally, nearly all parts of animals killed by the Eskimo were used. Eskimo clothing was made from skins of birds and animals (seal, caribou, and polar bear). Sewn with sinew thread and bone needles, hooded jackets, pants, and waterproof boots were well adapted to cold and wet climatic conditions. Skins were also processed into tents and boats, and bones were made into weapons.
Two kinds of boats were common. The umiak was a large open boat consisting of a wooden frame covered usually with walrus hide; it was used both to transport people and goods and especially in northern Alaska, to hunt whales. The other type of craft distinctive of the Eskimo transportation and their cultural relatives, the Aleuts, was the kayak. This one-man hunting vessels was entirely decked over with sealskin or caribou skin. The hunter sat in a cockpit inside, dressed in tight-fitting waterproof clothing made from seal or walrus intestine. The kayak glided silently through the water and enabled the hunter to move very close to his prey.
Everywhere the Eskimo depended on the Dogsled as a mode of winter Eskimo transportation over both land and the frozen sea. The sled was drawn by 2 to 14 huskies and was usually made from wood; where wood was unavailable (as in certain regions of central Canada), dried salmon was sometimes used as structural material for sleds. In recent years, snowmobiles have largely replaced the dogsled as the Eskimo's primary mode of transportation in many areas.
Social Organization. There were no tribes in traditional Eskimo society. Generally a group of people was known by a geographic term to which was added the suffix miut, meaning "people of". The basic unit of social organization in most areas was the extended family-a man, his wife, and unmarried children, and his married sons and their wives and children. Usually several family groups would join together and exploit the animal resources of a given area.
The leader of the group would be the eldest male still capable of hunting. At times he was called upon to settle disputes within the group and between it and outsiders. If that way of resolving quarrels did not bring peace, disputants might wrestle each other or join in a public joking and insulting contest to determine the winner. Special partnerships between men who were not relatives were important in trade relations, sharing of wives, and protection in travel to other regions. In Alaska, a village usually used at least one man's house for ceremonials and as a place where men and boys did much of their work and often even ate their meals and spent the night; this house was called a kashgee, or by a similar name.
The traditional kinship system of most Eskimo groups resembled that of America society. They called the same kinds of relatives "cousins" and generally practiced bilateral descent, by which they recognized both the mother's and the father's side of the family equally. In the western Bering sea areas, however, the paternal aspect of descent was so pronounced that there was a clan system based upon patrilineal principles. Every person belonged to the clan of his or her father. In those areas, too, the terms for "cousins" were markedly different from the usual Eskimo pattern.
Religion and Art. Eskimo religion was animistic. It imputed spirits, or souls, to most animals and to important features of the landscape. Human beings had several souls, or spiritual substances, one of which was the name. After death it was believed that the name and the personality of its bearer would enter the body of a newborn infant given the same name. To avoid their hostility, souls of the important subsistence animals-seals, walrus, whales, and polar bears-were propitiated through extensive honorary customs and taboos. For example, one of the most widespread customs was for the hunter's wife to offer a dead seal a drink of water as a sign of hospitality when her husband brought the carcass to the entryway of the house. In some areas, especially western Alaska, complex annual ceremonies of thanksgiving were performed in honor of the souls of seals and whales.
The central religious figure was the Shaman (angakok in some of the central Canadian languages). His function were comprehensive; to divine the causes of poor hunting, which often was believed to be brought on by a group member breaking food or hunting taboos; to diagnose and treat sickness; and to serve as the general source of advice in coping with crisis. Most groups believed in a supreme ruler of the sea animals and in a vague deification of the forces of nature. Arts and crafts were expressed mainly in etched decorations on ivory harpoon heads, needlecases, and other tools; in carved sculpture in ivory, tooth, or soapstone; in skin sewing; in dancing and the composition of songs; and in storytelling Elaborate wooden masks were also made by the Alaskan Eskimo.
Eskimo Life Today. Wherever they life-Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Siberia-the Eskimo are now much involved in the modern world. Not only have they wholeheartedly much of its technology, but they also use imported food, clothing, and house forms; similarly, their educational, recreational, economic, religious, and governmental institutions have been heavily influenced by the dominant European, Canadian, American, and Soviet cultures. Traditional practices and beliefs have not so thoroughly changed that most Eskimo can be termed assimilated or acculturated, especially in matters relating to social organization  and child rearing. Significant changes have begun to occur in all areas of their way of life as a result of sustained contact with the outside world.





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The Eskimo

The Eskimo are the native inhabitants of the seacoasts of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of North America and the northeastern tip of Siberia. Their habitation area extends over four countries; the United States, Canada, the USSR, and Greenland. Of the more than 90,000 Eskimo in this region, the greater part live south of the Arctic Circle, with approximately 28,000 on the Aleutian Islands and in Alaska; 17,000 in Canada; 1,500 in Siberia; and 45,000 in Greenland.
The world Eskimo is not an Eskimo word. It means "eaters of raw meat" and was used by the Algonquin Indians of eastern Canada for these hardly neighbors who wore animal-skin clothing and were adept hunters. The name became commonly employed by European explorers and now is generally used, even by Eskimo. Their own term for themselves is inuit (the Yupik variant is Yuit), which means the "real people". 
The Eskimo inhabit one of the most inclement regions of the world. Their land is mostly tundra-low, flat, treeless plains where the ground remains permanently frozen except for a few inches of the surface during the brief summer season. Although some groups are settled on rivers and depend on fishing, and others follow inland caribou herds, most Eskimo traditionally have lived primarily as hunters of maritime mammals (seals, walrus, and whales), and the structure and ethos of their culture have always been fundamentally oriented to the sea.
One of the most striking aspects of traditional Eskimo culture is its relative homogeneity across more than 8,000 km (5,000 mi) of the vast expanses of the Arctic. The main institutional and psychological patterns of the culture, religious, social and economic are much the same.There are some differences in traditional kinship systems, however, especially in the western regions, and the language is divided into two major dialectical groups, the inupik speakers (Greenland to western Alaska) and the Yupik speakers (southwestern Alaska and Siberia)
Traditional Way Of Life
The ability of the Eskimo to adapt successfully to a cold and harsh environment depended on a highly inventive material culture and particular values and psychological traits. An essential ingredient in this was the Eskimo's skill in making tools and other useful devices from all kinds of materials. Clothing sewn from skins, the toggle harpoon fashioned from ivory or antler and fitted with stone blades, sled runners made, in emergencies, from frozen strips of meat, and the well-known igloo, or snow house, are examples of indigenous cultural adaptations developed from available natural materials. Broad cultural values stressed the importance and excitement of hunting and the need to appease the souls of animals killed in the hunt. Courage and hardihood were emphasized in the training of young Eskimo, as was a strong sense of fatalism in facing the disappointments and frustrations of life, such as the death of loved ones.


Settlement. Settlement patterns varied according to the location of particular groups, the time of year, and subsistence opportunities in a given area. Permanent villages of stone houses existed in Greenland, which marks the eastern fringe of Eskimo inhabited areas, and in Alaska; along the Siberian shore villages were made up of houses composed of drift-wood and earth. In the central areas there were no such settled communities, although a given group might well return to the same location, a favorite fishing of hunting site year after year. In Eskimo areas an annual cycle took place in which groups spent the winter together in a larger settlement and then dispersed into smaller, family-sized bands during the summer. Such seasonal congregating and breaking up settlements occurred even in Greenland and western Alaska. During the summer, people would leave the permanent communities and live in animal-skin tents at favorite spots for seal hunting, for fishing, or for collecting birds, eggs, and plants. The Igloo (from an Eskimo word meaning "home") was constructed of packed snow and used only during the winter, when villages of these structures  were built on the firm ocean ice of the central Arctic to facilitate seal hunting through holes in the ice. Such dwellings were also used as temporary structures in Greenland and in parts of Canada and Alaska.
Subsistence. Traditional Eskimo subsistence patterns were closely geared to the annual cycle of changing seasons, the most important feature of which was the appearance and disappearance of solid ice on the sea. During summer, when the sea was free of ice, small groups of families traveled to their camps by open boat. In late spring and throughout the summer they hunted the northward-migrating caribou herds by killing them at river crossing or by driving them into large corrallike structures. Fish swimming upstream for spawning were netted of speared especially in weirs, net enclosures set in waterways. As fall approached, the Eskimo began to reassemble in the settled communities once again, where seal and bird hunting were the principal activities.

In Greenland and western Alaska, where the ocean surface does not freeze solid, seals and walrus come to open spaces between ice floes for air; in this areas, Eskimo hunters stood by the floes, hoping for a chance to throw their harpoons or pursue the seals in kayaks. The utog method of hunting seals in the spring was also distinctive of the more northerly Eskimo. Seeking warmth, seals often climb onto the surface of the ice to bask in the sun. A hunter would slowly creep toward a sleeping animal, either pushing a white shield of skin before him or else dressed and acting in such a manner that to seal he would look like another animal. He would get close enough to fix a harpoon (or, after contact with Europeans, shoot with a rifle) before the seal, sensing danger, could scramble back into the water. 




The Eskimo Part 2
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Soil Bacteria help killing Cancer

In modern society, cancer is the disease most feared by the majority of people throughout the world, supplanting the "while death" or tuberculosis, of the last century. In the mid 1980s nearly 6 million new cancer cases and more than 4 milion deaths from cancer were being reported wold wide each year. The most common fatal form was stomach cancer (prevalent in Asia), but lung cancer was rising rapidly because of the spread of cigarettes smoking in developing countries. Also the increase was the third-greatest killer, breach cancer, particulary in China and Japan. The fourth on the list was colon or rectum cancer, a disease that mainly strikes the elderly.


Soil bacteria hold promise as a cure for cancer and tumors. Clostridium Sporognenes of bacteria spores can grow in an environment without oxygen, but only in solid tumors, such as breast, brain, and prostate. Researchers from the University of Nottingham, UK and University of Maastricht, the Netherlands, do genetic engineering to insert the enzyme into the soil bacteria to activate the cancer drug. Tests in animals, cancer drugs injected into the bloodstream and becomes active only when triggered by the enzyme. Professor Nigel Minton, who led the study says, C Sporogenes older types of bacteria on earth. Bacteria can grow in low oxygen conditions. "When the Clostridia spores enter the body of cancer patients, they will grow in low oxygen environments, which is the core of the tumor."
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Greenhouse Effect



In environmental science, the greenhouse effect is a popular term for the role that the variable atmospheric constituents carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace-gases play in keeping the Earth's surface warmer than it would be without their presence. The atmosphere, when clear, is nearly transparent to the primarily shorwave radiation from the Sun, most of which is absorbed at the Earth's surface. The Earth, being much cooler than the Sun, reemits radiation most strongly at shorwave (infrared) wavelengths. The atmosphere's carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace-gases then absorb much of this radiation and reemit a large proportion of it back toward the Earth. The term greenhouse effect implies that a comparable effect keeps the interior of a greenhouse warm. Actually, the main role of the glass in a greenhouse, besides that of admitting solar radiation, is to prevent convection currents from mixing cooler air outside with the warm air inside.


Although H2O is an important atmospheric constituent contributing to the greenhouse effect, it is a major reason why humid regions experience less cooling at night than do dry regions, variations in CO2 in particular, have played an important role in climatic changes. For this reason, many environment sciences have expressed concern over the global increase in amounts of atmospheric        
CO2 in recents decades, largely as a result of the burning of fossil fuels. If the many other determinants of the Earth's present global climate remain more or less constant, the CO2 increase should raise the average temperature at the Earth's surface. Because warm air can contain more H2O before reaching saturation than can cooler air, the amount of H2O would probably also increase as the atmosphere warmed. Conceivably, such a process could go on indefinitely. Some natural checks might develop. For example, negative feedbacks such as increased cloud cover and increased sea absorption of CO2 could lower temperatures. Even a limited rise in average surface temperature, however, might lead to a significant rise in sea level and result in other environmental disruptions.
A great deal remains unknown about the cycling of carbon through the environment, and particulary about the role of oceans in this carbon cycle. Further uncertainty occurs in greenhouse effect studies because the historical temperature records being used tend to represent warmer urban areas rather than the environment as a whole. In addition, the effects of trace gases such as methane are only beginning to be understood. Despite such problems, a number of scientists maintain that the rise in global temperatures in the 1980s is indeed a result of the greenhouse effect. 
A report issued in 1988 by three major international organizations called for furher research into the greenhouse effect and at the same time urged immediate governmental action to counteract the apparent global warming trend. By the end of the 1980s no government had yet adopted any of the radical measures proposed by the report.                   
          
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Repairs Decorative Box



Ornate Velvet Box of Nails

Cigar box is a very good raw material to make a stunning decorative box. To make this box, you need a cardboard cigar box, 50 cm velvet  with the color of your choice, glue, paint brushes, scissors, nail fungus and a hammer. Follow these steps :
Measure and cut cloth material large enough to cover bottom and sides of the box, 
  add 3 inches to fold and close the open three edges of the box.
- Mixed the glue with a quarter of water. Apply glue to the outer layer and four-sided box with 
  a paint brush. Let the glue to dry and become sticky. Place the cloth material in the centre 
  pedestal and smooth from center to edge. Cover of the parties and 
  anti-aliased in the corner (Photo 1).
- Folding the cloth material at the corner angle and cut the rest (Photo 2).
Apply glue to the edge of one side; wait for 2-3 minutes, then press cloth material along 
  the edge (Photo 3). Make sure to do the same with other two sides. 
  Do not put glue on the inside of cloth material.

(Photo 1, 2, 3)
- Cut the velvet at all edges and the folds in 
   (make sure you do the same for great ornate velvet box of nails).
Cut a square velvet to be installed, and stick just outside the velvet hat. Cut the edge with 
   a knife.
Press the cap into the nail fungus with copy my pattern or patterns according to your design. 
  Use the tip of the nail using hammer on the outside corner to the inside lid of cardboard 
  and do not hit it.
- You just finish your first ornate velvet box of nails.


Fur-lined box of birds

To make fur-lined box of birds, the material you need is a wooden box of cigars, 
25-30 grams of breast feathers of birds, all-purpose glue, brush, five round silver buttons
Follow these instructions :
Apply glue to the narrow path of fluid from the underside. Follow the instructions on 
  the manufacture of velvet box above. Do not apply glue to a large area, 
  because the glue will dry before you have time to set up bird feathers.
Arrange bird feathers on a narrow field, given by the glue. Arrange the feathers of birds in 
  the same direction, with the location at the top of each other.
Put the bird feathers on the top the same way, starting from the corners to the Center. 
  Let the base was closed, because this section is not visible.
Screw the round button in the dialog box based on four corners and the center 
  of the front cover.
- You just finish the Fur-lined box of birds.

To make this box, you need 25-30 grams of the chest feathers of birds.
With a pair of scissors cut the hair to remove the soft hair.

Apply glue and assemble the feathers on the box every time on one small area.
Put hair on top of each other and spread from the middle of the top box, on the edge of the base.

Plug the four buttons in the top corner and the middle of the front cover.
Legs and handles the ball-shaped lid of this box, but you can use the form.
Knop easily screwed by hand into the soft wood.
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Traditional People and Conservation

All human beings have traditions, so what do we mean by "traditional people" and what is their special role, if any, in nature conservation in Indonesia?

Many of Indonesia's rural inhabitants live in communities with well established cultural identities and spiritual ties to the land, forest, and sea. Customary or adat law still governs social relations within these communities, including the regulation of how natural resources may be used and must be protected. It is the people of such communities, together with their customary beliefs, knowledge, and resource management practices that form the focus of this issue of conservation Indonesia.
Conservation is the wise and sustainable use of all natural resources, including the protection of species and natural areas deemed by society to be of special value. Conservation is inseparable from issues of economic development, especially in a rapidly industrializing country such as Indonesia, but it also has cultural and spiritual aspects.
People in traditional rural communities need to be involved in conservation for two reasons. First, many of Indonesia's national parks and nature reserves are homelands to traditional communities with historical going back many generations. Considerations of social justice (and law) dictate that the rightful inhabitants of these areas should participate in, and share, the benefits of benefits of development there, including the establishment and management of protected natural areas.
Second, rural people throughout Indonesia are already locally managing forest and sea resources. Any attempt to further develop or regulate those resources should start with an appreciation of the traditional knowledge and practical experience held by local residents, who should be treated not as passive recipients of development benefits but rather as true "local experts" on environmental problems and economic opportunities.
Since traditional communities have deep economic, cultural, and spiritual ties to the land and sea, their residents have a long-term interest in maintaining a sustainable flow of resources and a healthy and esthetically pleasant environment. Thus, traditional people are appropriate and necessary partners in conservation and in its integration with sustainable economic development.
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The Dayak Tribe

Learning from The Dayak People How To Manage A Protected Area


One of the principle aims of the Kayan Mentarang Project in East Kalimantan is reconcile the needs and priorities of nature conservation with those of people living around the nature reserve. To this end, WWF and its partners are applying concept from Unesco's worldwide system of protected areas, called "biosphere reserve", that incorporated local, often traditional land-use and management practices with nature conservation and, where appropriate, cultural preservation. 


WWF has proposed that this approach be implemented in Kayan Mentarang in the context of establishing a new national park and buffer zones.
The old conservationist approach of trying to isolate nature from people is being replaced with a more flexible a realistic willingness to work together with local communities to protect natural resources together with the human lives and livelihoods they sustain. Nature conservation for the sake of nature alone is not a viable concept. The conservation is not for nature alone, or only for the pursuits of natural scientists. It is for the common good of the whole world, of which humanity and human science are a part. Conservation science therefore must explore ways in which protection of nature and people's economic well being can be achieved together.
Some of these ways may be found through study of traditional knowledge and practices of people who lived for generations close to nature, such as the Dayaks of interior Kalimantan. This is especially true of people living near protected areas, as their detailed knowledge of the local flora, fauna, and environments can be directly applied to managing those areas. WWF has for several years been supporting and carrying out ethnobotanical, ethnozoological, and human ecological studies among Kenyah and other peoples living near Kayan Mentarang, focusing on such areas of knowledge and resources use such as medicinal plants, hunting and fishing, rattan silviculture and handicrafts, house building, management of agricultural land and traditional rice varieties, and local forest protection under customary law (adat). The object of these studies is not simply to document the existing knowledge and practices, but also to identify ways to  incorporate these into management of the protected area and its buffer zones.


An example of traditional conservation management is the protected forest lands (tana'ulen) and streams (sungai ulen) maintained by most Kenyah Villages in the region. These village forest reserves provide a multitude of useful products for the people's subsistence and for commercial trade. The forest land also include many steep slopes where agriculture, if allowed, might lead soil erosion. WWF is now mapping these traditional protected areas and the resources they contain. This is being done together with the people of villages as part of participatory approach called "primary environmental care", that is, conservation by and for the people. It is hoped that this approach will lead to community-based conservation and local resource management in the framework of a new Kayan Mentarang National Park.
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Sentarum Lake Wildlife


Sentarum Lake Wildlife is one of the wetlands of Indonesia, located in West Kalimantan. As we already know wetlands are extremely beneficial to humans and other living things, especially those living nearby. So, in the long history of human beings have learned how to use wetland resources for various purposes. The Dayak and Malay fishermen for centuries have been taking fish from lakes and other forest products from freshwater swamp forest in various ways, such as fishing, hunting, and taken harvest of forest products.
Until a few decades ago, the utilization does not cause serious impacts on natural habitats, but development and population pressures have an impact on wildlife lake Sentarum.
To protect the interests of wildlife conservation Sentarum lake, then in 1982 the Indonesian government established a wildlife reserve area. Even in 1994 has been determined to become Indonesia's second Ramsar site, this means that Sentarum Lake Wildlife become International interests. 

Sentarum Lake Wildlife Location
Sentarum Lake Wildlife located in the valley of the Kapuas River, about 700 km from estuary leading South China sea and surrounded by low mountains which covers an area of ​​80,000 hectaresThe most appropriate location which is located in the western part of Kapuas Hulu with 3/4 wide seasonal lake. Sentarum lake wildlife at a height of 30-35 m above sea level, with annual rainfall ranging from 3.000 up to 3.500 mm. Around 35 thousand hectares of lakes, the rest of freshwater wetland forests with tree height of 20-25 meters, and peatlands around the forest. Lake Sentarum wildlife forest is a tropical rain forest and much denser than ordinary jungle, and cause annual floods. The presence of peat soils in the vicinity causing a severe shortage of minerals and waters of the lake became black.
When the rainy season arrives, the Kapuas river water level will rise and cause flooding submerged basin, forming a lake with depths reaching 7-8 feet in December to March. When dry season comes, the water level decreases the Kapuas river, swamp forest and the lake becomes dry, but water levels in the Kapuas river will remain the same. The lake is often dry season in July and August.

Sentarum Lake Wildlife Biodiversity
Viewed from the standpoint of conservation, wildlife lake Sentarum have high interest rates. Because the uniqueness ability of various types of trees to make adjustments from annual floods that reached a height of 2-5 meters. Many specimens are only located on the Lake Sentarum wildlife.
The use of natural resources, particularly Flora such as roundwood (Fragrea fragrans), cavi (Shorea Balangeran), construction wood, fruits, vegetables, rattan, medicines, dyes, ropes, etc. From 207 tree species recorded, only 3% are used for firewood.
The wealth of fauna found in the lake Sentarum wildlife reserve, there are 200 types of fish including: Arowana (Scleropages formosus), Belida (Chitala Lopis), toman (Channa micropeltes), Betutuk (Oxyeleotris marmorata), Jelawat (Leptobarbus hoevenii) and Ulanguli (Botia macranthus). Fishing is very productive in the Kapuas basin,  predicted 2/3 freshwater fish entering  West Kalimantan Province came from Sentarum Lake Wildlife.
The life of an endangered fauna, including the proboscis (Nasalis larvatus), orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), Crocodile Sinyulong (Tomistoma schlegelii), estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and swamp forests stork (Ciconia stormi).
Forest and its contents provide benefits to society as a whole, then efforts to maintain the forest and its contents are the responsibility and obligation of government and society. Wildlife is a nature reserve areas are characterized by diversity and uniqueness of the species to survive and must be developed to their habitat. Everyone is prohibited from conducting activities that could lead to changes in the integrity of the wildlife area, unless the development activities for the benefit of wildlife habitat in a wildlife reserve. The use of natural resources in the region Lake Sentarum wildlife, are intended only for local residents who use the traditional way on an ongoing basis.