Coach and Carriage

The English stagecoach, a variation on the heavier mail coach, was modified to accommodate passengers on top of the vehicle as well as within it. These coaches were brightly colored, and the names of the way stations were emblazoned on the sides. They became known as "stage" coaches because the long-distance journeys were divided into stages; at each stage the horses and drivers were changed (1).
The introduction of elliptical, or under, springs in 1804 enabled coaches and carriages to be lighter and more comfortable to their passengers. The survey (2) and The Buggy (3), both of light construction, were American adaptations of, respectively, the English phaeton and gig. The Survey was designed for family use and was often topped with a fringed roof; The buggy sometimes featured a folding hood and a rear seat for a groom. Each vehicle was drawn by a single horse, although the survey could be modified to accommodate two horses.
The English phaeton, a light, four-wheeled carriage driven by the owner, became popular during the 19th century. Both the lady's or park, phaeton (4) and the stanhope phaeton (5) were elegant town carriages. The mail phaeton (6) the heaviest of the type, was drawn by two horses and more closely resembled a coach.
A governess, or tub, cart (7) was designed for children; it was entered through a back door and lacked a front-facing driver's seat.